Are light chains elevated in MGUS?
LC-MGUS is defined by an abnormal kappa-lambda (κ-λ) free light chain ratio (FLC-R), elevation of free light chain (FLC) level, and absence of expression of a monoclonal peak of IgH in the serum on immunofixation (Dispenzieri, et al 2010, Drayson, et al 2001).
What is light chain MGUS?
Pelzer et al concluded that light-chain MGUS—defined as an abnormal FLC ratio, increase of involved FLC with complete loss of immunoglobulin heavy chain, and absence of a history of lymphoproliferative disease—is a relatively benign condition, and that the monoclonal protein often diisappears over time.
What does high Kappa free light chain mean?
A kappa free light chain test is a quick blood test that measures certain proteins in your blood. High levels of these proteins may mean you have a plasma cell disorder.
What does it mean if both kappa and lambda light chains are elevated?
A polyclonal elevation of both kappa and lambda serum free light chain can be observed in many individuals, not resulting in an abnormal FLC ratio, the etiology of which is not clear. It has been observed in the context of immune activation as it can occur with chronic infections and inflammatory states.
What causes elevated serum light chains?
If the amount of free light chains is higher or lower than normal, it can mean you have a disorder of the plasma cells. These include multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells, and amyloidosis, a condition that causes a dangerous buildup of proteins in different organs and tissues.
What does M Spike mean?
A monoclonal spike (M spike or paraprotein) on serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is a frequent finding in the general population and typically is pathognomonic of an asymptomatic, premalignant condition called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).
What are light chains in blood?
Light chains are proteins made by plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. Plasma cells also make immunoglobulins (antibodies). Immunoglobulins help protect the body against illness and infections. Immunoglobulins are formed when light chains link up with heavy chains, another type of protein.
What is light chain myeloma?
Light-chain multiple myeloma (LCMM) is a less frequent type of multiple myeloma (MM), with a more aggressive course and poorer prognosis. It is characterized by the inability of the malignant plasma cells to produce heavy chains, resulting in the exclusive production of light chains.
What is a high Kappa Lambda ratio for MGUS?
In general, a low kappa-lambda ratio (< 0.26) indicates the overproduction of lambda light chains, and a high ratio (> 1.65) indicates the overproduction of kappa light chains.