What factors control the tracking of the patella?
It is caused by imbalances in the forces controlling patellar tracking during knee flexion and extension, particularly with overloading of the joint. Risk factors include overuse, trauma, muscle dysfunction, tight lateral restraints, patellar hypermobility, and poor quadriceps flexibility.
What prevents lateral dislocation of patella?
The articular cartilage on the medial facet is thicker than on the lateral facet, with the lateral facet bigger than the medial. It has an anterior projection on the lateral femoral condyle, lateral to the patellar groove. This prevents lateral dislocation of the patella.
What causes patellofemoral pain syndrome?
Overuse. In many cases, PFPS is caused by vigorous physical activities that put repeated stress on the knee —such as jogging, squatting, and climbing stairs. It can also be caused by a sudden change in physical activity.
What is patellar lateralization?
Constitutionally, it can appear, that due to lacking muscular guidance or as a consequence of former kneecap injuries, the kneecap drifts outwardly from its slide bearing. This is called patellar lateralization (outward drifting of the kneecap) or patellar subluxation.
What is lateral patellar tracking?
What is patellar tracking disorder? Patellar tracking disorder means that the kneecap (patella) shifts out of place as the leg bends or straightens. In most cases, the kneecap shifts too far toward the outside of the leg. In a few people, it shifts toward the inside.
Why does a patella dislocate laterally?
Patellar dislocations tend to occur in a lateral direction, partly because the direction of pull of the quadriceps muscle is slightly lateral to the mechanical axis of the limb. Medial instability is rare and more likely to result from congenital conditions, quadriceps atrophy, or iatrogenically.
What is lateral patellar displacement?
Lateral patellar dislocation refers to lateral displacement followed by dislocation of the patella due to disruptive changes to the medial patellar retinaculum.
What is Q angle in knee?
The Q angle, which is also known as quadriceps angle, is defined as the angle formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon.
This is called patellar lateralization (outward drifting of the kneecap) or patellar subluxation. The drifting out oft he slide bearing leads to an increased contact pressure of the kneecap onto the slide bearing, which can damage the joint cartilage and eventually leads to an arthrosis.
What is lateral pressure in flexion of the patella?
Chronic anterior knee pain with a stable patella is often associated with overload and increased pressure on the lateral facet due to pathologic lateral soft-tissue restraints. “Lateral pressure in flexion” is a term describing the pathologic process of increasing contact pressure over the lateral patellar facet as knee flexion progresses.
What determines the localization of the patella?
The localization of the patella is specifically determined by the borders of the femoral condyles, the balance between vastus lateralis and medialis and by the ligamentous support of the medial and lateral retinaculum.
How do you fix a patellar alignment problem?
In stead of treating a lateral patella rotation, an excessive medial femoral rotation is to be taking care of. Following this theory, the control of femur rotation may be important in restoring normal patellar alignment and so a strengthening program of hip external rotators may decrease patellar malalignment.