What is the aim of epidemiology?
The principal aim of epidemiology is to identify factors related to the occurrence of disease. Identification of these factors both causal ( causation) and risk factors, enable developing a rational basis for prevention ( epidemiology, prevention).
What is epidemiology and why is it important?
Epidemiology identifies the distribution of diseases, factors underlying their source and cause, and methods for their control; this requires an understanding of how political, social and scientific factors intersect to exacerbate disease risk, which makes epidemiology a unique science.
What is the best definition of epidemiology?
By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
What are the tools of epidemiology?
Proportions, ratios, rates, prevalence, incidence, study designs, bias, confounding, effect modification, odds and risk ratios, statistical power, and confidence intervals are defined and discussed. Descriptive epidemiology is concerned with describing the distribution of disease by person, place, and time.
What is epidemiology and examples?
Epidemiological studies measure the risk of illness or death in an exposed population compared to that risk in an identical, unexposed population (for example, a population the same age, sex, race and social status as the exposed population).
What are the measures of epidemiology?
Calculate and interpret the following epidemiologic measures:Ratio.Proportion.Incidence proportion (attack rate)Incidence rate.Prevalence.Mortality rate.
What is a risk in epidemiology?
Risk. (1) Epidemiological definition. The probability that an event will occur e.g. that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. Formally defined as the proportion of initially disease free individuals who develop disease over a defined period of observation.
What are the 3 major types of epidemiological studies?
Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.
What does a risk ratio of 1.37 mean?
In general: If the risk ratio is 1 (or close to 1), it suggests no difference or little difference in risk (incidence in each group is the same). A risk ratio > 1 suggests an increased risk of that outcome in the exposed group. A risk ratio risk in the exposed group.
How do you interpret a relative risk ratio?
A relative risk of one implies there is no difference of the event if the exposure has or has not occurred. If the relative risk is greater than 1, then the event is more likely to occur if there was an exposure. If the relative risk is less than 1, then the event is less likely to occur if there was an exposure.
How do you explain risk ratios?
A measure of the risk of a certain event happening in one group compared to the risk of the same event happening in another group. In cancer research, risk ratios are used in prospective (forward looking) studies, such as cohort studies and clinical trials.