What is the first line treatment for absence seizures?
First-line medications (seizure medicines that are most helpful) include ethosuximide, valproic acid and lamotrigine. In most cases, these provide effective seizure control. In a recent study, ethosuximide (Zarontin) was shown to be the first drug of choice to treat absence seizures.
How do you treat absence status epilepticus?
Absence status epilepticus of any cause is treated in hospitalized patients with intravenous diazepam, lorazepam, other benzodiazepines, or sodium valproate (106; 84; 99; 60; 64; 104).
Do absence seizures need to be treated?
A child may have 10, 50, or even 100 absence seizures in a given day and they may go unnoticed. Most children who have typical absence seizures are otherwise normal. However, absence seizures can get in the way of learning and affect concentration at school. This is why prompt treatment is important.
Which is the drug of choice for absence seizures?
Ethosuximide (Zarontin). This is the drug most doctors start with for absence seizures. In most cases, seizures respond well to this drug.
What is Spike wave discharges?
Spike and wave discharges (SWDs) are the electrographic hallmark of typical absence seizures, and their presence in the EEG of children serves as major diagnostic criterion for absence epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos, 1999; Sitnikova & van Luijtelaar, 2007).
Which drugs are contraindicated in absence seizures?
Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, and tiagabine are contraindicated in the treatment of absence seizures. The GABA agonists vigabatrin and tiagabine can induce absence seizures, including absence status epilepticus.
Do absence seizures cause brain damage?
While absence seizures occur in the brain, they don’t cause brain damage. Absence seizures won’t have any effect on intelligence in most children. Some children may experience learning difficulties because of their lapses in consciousness. Others may think they’re daydreaming or not paying attention.
What are the treatment options for absence seizures?
The first-line treatment for absence seizures is ethosuximide. Other therapies include valproate, lamotrigine, and topiramate. Second-line medications that can be used as adjunct therapy include zonisamide and levetiracetam.
What is the best monotherapy for absence seizures in children?
Lancet 353:623–626. (1999) Lamictal (lamotrigine) monotherapy for typical absence seizures in children. Epilepsia 40:973–979.
Are staring spells “absence seizures”?
When patients present with staring spells, practitioners should be careful and not tell parents or other providers that these episodes are “absence seizures” before EEG evaluation is completed. The above-mentioned study developed a tool to determine the pretest probability of seizures in children presenting with staring spells.
What are typical absence seizures in absence epilepsy (CAE)?
Most typical absence seizures are medically responsive, and childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) tends to remit by adulthood. Typical absence seizures in CAE, juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are treated with ethosuximide, valproate, or lamotrigine as first-line therapies.