What hyperosmolar means?
The loss of water also makes the blood more concentrated than normal. This is called hyperosmolarity. It is a condition in which the blood has a high concentration of salt (sodium), glucose, and other substances. This draws the water out of the body’s other organs, including the brain.
What causes hyperosmolality?
The syndrome frequently is caused by dehydration (especially in hot climates), by uncontrolled diabetes with or without ketosis, and (less frequently) by central lesions that reset the osmotically sensitive regions of the brain.
What causes the coma in Nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma?
Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma is coma resulting from very high blood glucose levels in a patient with normal ketone levels. If very high blood glucose levels are combined with high ketone levels, the state is likely to be ketoacidosis.
What is Nonketotic hyperosmolar?
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is a potentially deadly condition that can develop as a result of infection or illness in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes or when diabetes medications aren’t taken as directed. Some also refer to this as a “diabetic coma.”
Is hyperosmolar and hypertonic the same thing?
Hyperosmotic solutions are not always hypertonic. But hyposmotic solutions are always hypotonic. The response to this rapid fire presentation of osmolarity and tonicity was overwhelmingly positive.
What is hyperosmolality and hypernatremia?
Hypernatremia by definition is a state of hyperosmolality, because sodium is the dominant extracellular cation and solute. The normal plasma osmolality (Posm) lies between 275 and 290 mOsm/kg and is primarily determined by the concentration of sodium salts.
How is Hyperosmolarity diagnosed?
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is diagnosed by blood tests that show very high levels of glucose and very concentrated blood. Treatment is intravenous fluids and insulin. Complications include coma, seizures, and death.
Why is potassium low in HHS?
Both DKA and HHS patients have total body potassium deficits due to osmotic diuresis that require careful repletion. Deficits can be substantial: The average total whole body potassium deficit in DKA is 3 to 5 mEq/kg.
What is the difference between Hyperosmotic and Hypoosmotic?
The key difference between isosmotic hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic is that isosmotic refers to the property of having equal osmotic pressures. But, hyperosmotic refers to the property of having a high osmotic pressure and hypoosmotic refers to the property of having a low osmotic pressure.
How is HHNS treated?
Treatment typically includes:
- Fluids given through a vein (intravenously) to treat dehydration.
- Insulin given through a vein (intravenously) to lower your blood sugar levels.
- Potassium and sometimes sodium phosphate replacement given through a vein (intravenously) to help your cells function correctly.