What is the treatment protocol for tuberculosis?
The preferred regimen for treating adults with TB remains a regimen consisting of an intensive phase of 2 months of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB) followed by a continuation phase of 4 months of INH and RIF.
What is MDR TB PPT?
Definition of MDR – TB MDR-TB caused by strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis resistant both Rifampicin and Isoniazid with or without resistance to other drugs. Single Isoniazid or Rifampicin resistance is not MDR – TB MDR TB is a laboratory diagnosis, Not a Clinical assumption Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7.
WHO recommended treatment for tuberculosis?
The standardized regimens for anti-TB treatment recommended by WHO include five essential medicines designated as “first line”: isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R), pyrazinamide (Z), ethambutol (E) and streptomycin (S). Table 2.1 shows the recommended doses for adults and children.
How many stages of TB treatment are there?
The standard six month course of treatment consists of two phases. The first phase lasts two months and is called the intensive phase. The second phase lasts four months and is called the continuous phase.
What is MDR and XDR TB?
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is practically incurable by standard first-line treatment. However, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is resistant to both first- and second-line drugs due to drug misuse and mismanagement. Therefore, XDR-TB treatment becomes even harder.
What is line probe assay for TB?
The line probe assay (LPA), based on strip technology was used to diagnose TB and detect RIF as well as Isoniazid (INH) resistance due to mutations in rpoβ, and both inhA and katG genes. The test was performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Hain Life Science GmbH, Nehren, Germany).
What are the second-line drugs for TB?
Kanamycin, Capreomycin and Amikacin are injectable second-line. Bedaquiline and Delamanid are new drugs. Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Thioamides, Cycloserine, Para-aminosalicylic acid, Streptomycin, and Clofazimine are possibly effective.
What is DOTS program?
Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS, also known as TB-DOTS) is the name given to the tuberculosis (TB) control strategy recommended by the World Health Organization. According to WHO, “The most cost-effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with a high incidence is by curing it.
What are the treatment options for culture positive tuberculosis (TB)?
Treatment of Culture Positive TB THRICE-WEEKLY OPTIONS (Rated BI for HIV negative, BII for HIV positive) Initial Phase 2 months: INH, RIF, PZA, EMB 3x/week (24 doses, 8 weeks) Continuation Phase 1) 4 months: INH + RIF 3x/week (54 doses, 18 weeks) 2) 7 months: INH + RIF 3x/week (93 doses, 31 weeks) 14.
What is this introduction to tuberculosis (TB) slide set for?
This introduction to TB slide set is meant to be a tool for people who are not familiar with TB. It provides a basic overview of TB using plain language and visual aids. This slide set is intended for a general public audience.
What is the best method for diagnosing hetero-resistance to tuberculosis (TB)?
Sequencing techniques would be the preferred methodology to further confirm silent, rare and disputed mutations. Hetero-resistancecan occur mainly in countries with a high MDR-TB rate, due to the fact that patients can be infected with two or more different strains (so-called mixed infections).
What are the who recommendations for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB)?
WHO recommends replacing conventional microscopy with rapid molecular tests (such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF) for the initial diagnosis of TB (3, 17, 24, 25, 32). If resources permit, two specimens should be tested to increase the sensitivity.