What are the therapeutic effects of cardiac glycosides?
Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and increase its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump. They are selective steroidal glycosides and are important drugs for the treatment of heart failure and cardiac rhythm disorders.
What are the therapeutic activity of glycosides?
Cardiac glycosides are a diverse family of naturally derived compounds that bind to and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase. Members of this family have been in clinical use for many years for the treatment of heart failure and atrial arrhythmia, and the mechanism of their positive inotropic effect is well characterized.
What is the function of cardiac glycosides?
Cardiac glycosides are medicines for treating heart failure and certain irregular heartbeats. They are one of several classes of drugs used to treat the heart and related conditions.
What is the therapeutic range for digoxin?
Therapeutic levels of digoxin are 0.8-2.0 ng/mL. The toxic level is >2.4 ng/mL.
Which part of glycoside is responsible for therapeutic activity *?
1.2. The aglycone part is responsible for pharmacological action, whereas sugar part is responsible for solubility, cell permeability, and other pharmacokinetic properties [66,67]. Different types of glycoside are found in different plants and possess particular type of characteristics.
What are the indications of cardiac glycosides?
Today glycosides have 3 indications: manifest and chronic cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmia absoluta and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Glycosides are no longer important in the therapy of acute cardiac insufficiency.
What is the mechanism of action of digitalis?
The main mechanism of action of digitalis is on the sodium-potassium ATPase of the myocyte. It reversibly inhibits the ATPase resulting in increased intracellular sodium levels. The build-up of intracellular sodium leads to a shift of sodium extracellularly through another channel in exchange for calcium ions.
Why does digoxin have a narrow therapeutic index?
Digoxin has a narrow therapeutic index [1, 23, 25] so small variations in plasma concentration may readily result in toxic or sub therapeutic concentrations. Thus, consistency in bioavailability is important.
What is the mechanism of action of cardiac glycoside?
Manna, S. K., Sreenivasan, Y. & Sarkar, A. Cardiac glycoside inhibits IL-8-induced biological responses by downregulating IL-8 receptors through altering membrane fluidity. J. Cell Physiol. 207, 195–207 (2006).
What is the management of cardiac glycoside toxicity?
The management of patients with suspected or known cardiac glycoside poisoning is complicated by the variable time course in toxicity, unpredictable dose–response relationship, and requirement for interhospital transfers and expensive or invasive treatments.
What are the side effects of cardiac glycosides?
Moreover, taking high doses of cardiac glycosides can cause electrolyte imbalances involving sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. In addition, the concurrent use of certain medications can increase digoxin levels in the blood.
What is an example of a cardiac glycoside?
Example of the chemical structure of oleandrin, a potent toxic cardiac glycoside extracted from the Oleander bush. some species of Chrysolina beetles, including Chrysolina coerulans, have cardiac glycosides (including Xylose) in their defensive glands.